Post-thrombophlebitis disease (PTFB syndrome). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of PTFS
- Postthrombophlebitis syndrome - what is it
- Causes of postthrombophlebitis syndrome
- Post-thrombophlebitis syndrome is a severe chronic pathology
- Postthrombophlebitis Syndrome - Symptoms
- Postthrombophlebitis syndrome with varicose veins
- Postthrombophlebitis syndrome, stages and forms
- Post-thrombophlebitis syndrome, diagnosis
- What is dangerous postthrombophlebitis syndrome
- Post-thrombophlebitis syndrome - treatment in Moscow
- Post-thrombophlebitis syndrome - treatment at home
- Postthrombophlebitis syndrome - treatment with folk remedies
- Postthrombophlebitis Syndrome - Prevention
- Frequently asked questions about post-thrombophlebitis syndrome
Postthrombophlebitic syndrome (PTFS) is a complex of pathological symptoms that develop after deep vein thrombosis under the condition of insufficient recanalization of thrombosed venous segments and weak compensatory capabilities of the body. In modern European literature, post-thrombophlebitis syndrome is also called venous stress disorder. A disease that occurs as a complication of long-term impairment of venous outflow after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Post-thrombophlebitis disease
Even despite ongoing research, the causes of PTFS remain unclear. According to modern European data, the following chain of events leads to the development of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome. An inflammatory reaction that occurs in response to the presence of thrombotic masses in the lumen of blood vessels causes injury and subsequent tissue fibrosis. Venous valves are damaged and deformed, to a greater extent mechanically from a blood clot. The resulting valve failure combined with permanent venous obstruction increases pressure in the veins and capillaries. Venous hypertension causes stagnation in tissues, such as rupture of small superficial veins, subcutaneous hemorrhage, and increased tissue permeability. This in turn is manifested by symptoms such as pain, swelling, hyperpigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis, and even an ulcer.
Post-thrombophlebitic syndrome occurs after a certain time after a venous thrombosis. Symptoms of the disease can occur after six months or more from the moment of a thrombotic event. The course of the disease is always severe. The signs of chronic venous insufficiency progressively increase, trophic disorders appear and increase.
Postthrombophlebitis syndrome significantly reduces the quality of life of a person after a deep vein thrombosis, especially with regard to physical exertion, causes a change in the patient's psycho-emotional sphere and leads to limitations in everyday activities.
Signs and symptoms of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome of the lower extremities may include:
- night muscle cramps
- itching and / or tingling
- hyperpigmentation of the skin
- trophic ulcer.
These signs and symptoms can vary significantly in patients and over time, the clinical picture changes in the direction of increasing severity. In post-thrombophlebitic syndrome, symptoms usually worsen after a long walk or standing and improve after resting or taking a horizontal position of the lower limb.
Varicose veins are one of the causes of venous thrombosis, which, in turn, is complicated by post-thrombophlebitis syndrome. Long-term varicose veins are the risk of numerous complications, and PTFS is one of the most severe of them.
Postthrombophlebitis syndrome is part of the structure of diseases manifested by symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The most modern and relevant gradation of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome today is the CEAP classification. This tool most accurately describes trophic and morphological changes that occur in the lower limb with the development of pathology. Also, doctors of many state medical institutions use the GHPratt classification, as modified by M.I. Cousin. According to her, post-thrombophlebitis syndrome is divided into the following forms:
- Edematous pain
Diagnosis of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome is based on a clinical examination of the patient, assessment of complaints and anamnesis. Also an important diagnostic criterion is modern ultrasonic duplex scanning.
Signs and symptoms of acute deep vein thrombosis and post-thrombophlebitis syndrome are quite similar. Therefore, the diagnosis of postthrombophlebitic syndrome is relevant and valid only after 3 - 6 months after an episode of acute venous thrombosis. This is due to the possibility of recanalization of thrombosed veins, as well as good compensatory capabilities of the body. For an even more accurate assessment of organic lesions of the venous system and planning corrective interventions are used:
- Multispiral computed angiography with contrast enhancement.
- Magnetic resonance phlebography.
- Intravenous Ultrasound Diagnostics (IVUS).
- X-ray contrast phlebography.
Postthrombophlebitis syndrome is a severe pathology that often leads to disability in patients. In fact, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis. The symptoms of the disease often progress, making life more difficult for patients. Often, against the background of PTFS, relapses of deep vein thrombosis occur. In some cases, an even more dangerous pathology, pulmonary thromboembolism, may develop. Postthrombophlebitis syndrome, even today, with a wide arsenal of conservative and invasive methods, cannot be completely cured. Therefore, it is so important to timely and competently treat the pathology of the venous system, remove varicose veins, and provide adequate treatment for deep vein thrombosis.
Vascular surgeons and phlebologists, both public and private urban medical centers, are involved in the treatment of post-thrombotic syndrome in Moscow. Treatment includes conservative measures and surgical interventions.
The first are:
- Wearing compression hosiery.
- The use of variable pneumatic compression and electromyostimulation.
- Drug therapy (drugs to improve microcirculation, angioprotectors, phlebotonics).
The main types of modern surgical interventions for post-thrombophlebitis syndrome:
- Interventions aimed at correcting pathological discharge of blood from deep veins to superficial (laser or endoscopic removal of perforating veins).
- Surgery to reduce the pathological venous volume (with varicose form of PTFS) - laser and radiofrequency thermobliteration, miniflebectomy.
- Interventions aimed at improving the outflow of blood through the affected veins are shunting interventions. The most commonly performed is ileofemoral bypass under X-ray control.
The treatment of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome at home consists of the use of compression hosiery, drug therapy, daily special gymnastics for the legs.
To date, the effectiveness of not a single folk remedy for the treatment of post-thrombotic disease has not been confirmed by scientific data. Therefore, to recommend these methods of treatment is an extremely dubious undertaking.
Prevention of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome begins with the prevention of primary and recurrent deep vein thrombosis. For people hospitalized with a high risk of DVT, prevention methods should include early activation, the use of compression stockings or variable pneumocompression devices, electrical stimulation, and / or the use of anticoagulant drugs.
With already diagnosed thrombosis, good results are shown by the innovative thrombolysis technique. This is an endovascular procedure aimed at dissolving a thrombotic clot in a vein. Also, for the prevention of post-thrombophlebitis syndrome, adequate anticoagulant therapy is necessary.
European vascular surgeons and phlebologists recommend for patients with overweight who have already undergone deep vein thrombosis to reduce weight.
What to do to avoid post-thrombophlebitis syndrome?
To avoid post-thrombophlebitic syndrome, it is necessary to periodically undergo examination by a phlebologist with a modern ultrasound scan of the venous system of the lower extremities. In the event that venous thrombosis has already taken place, you need to follow the recommendations of the attending doctor, use compression hosiery, and take the prescribed drugs.
What is the best way to treat post-thrombophlebitis syndrome in Moscow?
If you have been diagnosed with post-thrombophlebitis syndrome, you should consult a good phlebologist or vascular surgeon in Moscow, with the obligatory performance of modern ultrasound duplex scanning and strictly follow the doctor's recommendations.
What is post-thrombophlebitis syndrome of the lower extremities?
Postthrombophlebitis syndrome of the lower extremities is a very serious complication of deep vein thrombosis, manifested by edema, pain, skin hyperpigmentation and trophic ulcer. Even the most modern European technologies today do not guarantee a complete cure for post-thrombophlebitis syndrome of the lower extremities.
What is the current treatment for post-thrombophlebitic syndrome of the lower extremities in Moscow?
Modern treatment of post-thrombophlebitic syndrome in Moscow is carried out in urban phlebological and vascular centers. Treatment will depend on the clinical form of the disease: edematous pain, varicose, ulcerative and mixed. Also, the choice of modern treatment of post-thrombophlebitic syndrome is based on the degree of occlusion (obstruction) of the venous bed. If indicated, modern minimally invasive stenting operations are performed under X-ray control.
What is the possible treatment of post-thrombophlebitic syndrome of the lower extremities at home?
Treatment of post-thrombophlebitic syndrome of the lower extremities at home is possible only after consultation and ultrasound examination in a good city vascular or phlebological center. This treatment will necessarily include: wearing compression hosiery, taking medications to improve microcirculation, a special set of leg exercises.